Of the four monuments that dominated the perimeter of the Naqsh-e Jahan Square, this one was the first to be built. The purpose of this mosque was for it to be a private mosque of the royal court, unlike the Shah Mosque, which was meant for the public. For this reason, the mosque does not have any minarets and is of a smaller size. Indeed, few Westerners at the time of the Safavids even paid any attention to this mosque, and they certainly did not have access to it. It wasn’t until centuries later, when the doors were opened to the public, that ordinary people could admire the effort that Shah Abbas had put into making this a sacred place for the ladies of his harem, and the exquisite tile- work, which is far superior to those covering the Shah Mosque.
To avoid having to walk across the Square when getting to the mosque, Shah Abbas had the architect build a tunnel spanning across the piazza, from the Ali Qapu Palace, to the mosque. When reaching the entrance of the mosque, one would have to walk through a passage that winds round and round, until one finally reaches the main building. Along this passage there were standing guards, and the obvious purpose of this design was for the women of the harem to be shielded as much as possible from anyone entering the building. At the main entrance of the mosque there were also standing guards, and the doors of the building were kept closed at all times. Today, these doors are open to visitors, and the passage traversing underneath the field is no longer in use.
Throughout history, this mosque has been referred to by different names. For Junabadi it was the mosque with the great dome (Masjed-e Qubbat-e ’azim) and the domed mosque (Qubbat masjed), while contemporary historian Iskandar Munshi named it the mosque of great purity and beauty. On the other hand, European travelers, such as Jean Chardin referred to the mosque using the current name, and Quranic inscriptions within the mosque, done by Iranian calligrapher Baqir Banai, also include the name of Sheikh Lutfollah. In addition, the reckonings of Muhibb Ali Beg, the imperial treasure holderer, show that the Imam’s salary came directly from the imperial household resources. All this suggests that not only was the building indeed named after Sheikh Lutfallah, but also, that this famous imam was among the first prayer leaders for the royal court in this very mosque.
The monument’s architect was Mohammad-Reza Isfahani, who solved the problem of the difference between the direction of Qibla and gateway of the building by devising an L-shaped connecting vestibule between the entrance and the enclosure. Reza Abbasi’s inscription on the entry gateway gives the date of the start of construction. The north-south orientation of the Meydan (square) does not agree with south-west direction of Qibla; it is set at 45 degrees to it. This feature, called pāshnah in Persian architecture, has caused to standing the dome not directly behind the entrance iwan.
The interior side of the dome. The decoration seems to lead the eye upwards toward its center, as the rings of ornamental bands filled with arabesque patterns become smaller and smaller.
The dome is inset with a network of lemon-shaped compartments, which decrease in size as they ascend towards the formalized peacock at the apex. The Mihrāb in the west wall is enameled with tiny flowers on a deep blue meadow. Each part of the design, each plane, each repetition, each separate branch or blossom has its own somber beauty. But the beauty of the whole comes as you move. Again, the highlights are broken by the play of glazed and unglazed surfaces; so that with every step they rearrange themselves in countless shining patterns… I have never encountered splendor of this kind before.
This mosque which is located at Naqsh-e Jahan square has a very unique characteristics which most of mosques does not have. When you walk in front of it you see it’s minaret (top places) as if is moving with you till it reaches at center place if front of mosques building and then is fixed that’s why because it’s minaret otherwise than other mosques is not built at center of building and that show it’s architecture’s ability and art, inside the mosques there is a place that if you speak your voice will be echoed.